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What is the Greenhouse Gas Protocol

The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol is a widely recognised and internationally accepted accounting and reporting standard for measuring and managing GHG emissions. It was developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and provides a comprehensive framework for organizations to measure, report, and manage their GHG emissions.

The GHG Protocol is widely used by businesses, governments, and other organizations to quantify and report their emissions in a consistent and transparent manner. It is based on a "scope" approach that categorizes emissions into three scopes:

  1. Scope 1 emissions: These are direct emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting organization, such as emissions from combustion of fossil fuels in owned or leased vehicles, equipment, and facilities.

  2. Scope 2 emissions: These are indirect emissions associated with the generation of purchased electricity, heat, or steam that the reporting organization consumes.

  3. Scope 3 emissions: These are indirect emissions that occur in the value chain of the reporting organization, including emissions from activities such as purchased goods and services, transportation, and employee commuting.

The GHG Protocol provides guidance on how to account for and report emissions in each of these scopes, as well as guidance on setting targets, calculating emission reductions, and reporting on climate-related initiatives. It offers a flexible framework that can be applied by organizations of all sizes and sectors, making it a widely adopted standard for GHG accounting and reporting.


The GHG Protocol has been recognized as a leading standard by many initiatives and programs, including the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), the Science-Based Targets initiative (SBTi), and various national and regional GHG reporting programs. It has become a widely accepted tool for organizations to measure, report, and manage their GHG emissions, helping them identify areas for improvement, set targets, and demonstrate their commitment to addressing climate change.


At ZeroBees, we use the Greenhouse Gas Protocol as our core framework when assessing an organisation's Greenhouse gas emissions - but also recognising its limitations and ensuring it is fit for purpose for your organisation.


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